By Lisa A. Eramo, MA


Regardless of whether they’re with a hospital, physician practice, health IT vendor, governmental agency, consulting company, or payer, there is no shortage of job opportunities in health information management (HIM). In fact, few professions offer this level of diversity and job security. Becoming pigeonholed is no longer a reality as the need for data stewards persists throughout the industry. Shannan Swafford, DHA, MBA, RHIT, CHDA, CCS, knows this firsthand. An HIM professional who gained an early appreciation for the power of coded data, Swafford has since applied her knowledge in a variety of settings throughout her career.

The 411 on Shannan Swafford

Age: 49

Location: Dayton, TN

Current role: Manager of coding process improvement at BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee

Degrees: Associate of applied science in health information technology, bachelor of science in business, master of business administration, doctorate of health administration in information systems

Coding credentials: RHIT, CDHA, CCS

Side gigs: Adjunct professor—taught and developed curriculum for “Current Issues in Healthcare Administration” at John Brown University in Siloam Springs, AR, and taught “Business Ethics in Healthcare” at Bryan College in Dayton, TN


Lisa Eramo: Why HIM—What drew you to the profession?

Shannan Swafford: I’ve always been interested in the business side of medicine. When I started looking at allied health professions I found HIM, and I fell in love immediately.

LE: I hear that a lot—that people don’t know about HIM as a profession until they start digging into alternative careers in healthcare. Do you think that’s changing?

SS: I do think it’s changing; however, there’s still an antiquated view of the profession that has persisted despite the fact that HIM skills and expertise have evolved commensurate with the digital transformation in healthcare. Having to prove myself and my knowledge was frustrating when I was younger, but now I’ve found ways to address it through open conversations. You can’t get defensive. You need to help people understand what you know and how you can help solve the problem at hand.

LE: I know you’ve worked in HIM since 2000. What types of jobs have you had, and specifically how has each job helped you grow professionally?

SS: I began my career in HIM as an individual contributor but quickly became a team leader at a medical center where I wore many hats. I wrote queries, pulled data from the pre-electronic health record (EHR) electronic system, and hand-typed state reporting for mortality, births, deaths, the traumatic brain injury registry, and the cancer registry. This is where I started to understand the implications of diagnosis codes and the power of the coded data. This experience definitely shaped my passion for data.

Next, I worked as a billing department coordinator for a family medicine practice where I was also the super user for the EHR and trained staff on how to use the system. In this role, I learned more about the EHR and how to use it effectively to improve patient care. My third position was hospital health IT consultant for a regional extension center, helping transition rural and critical access hospitals in Tennessee from paper to the EHR or from a non-certified EHR to a certified one. This was an invaluable experience, and it fed my desire to help improve access to care in rural areas. I learned so much about systems, interoperability, and the need for standardization and structured codified data across systems for continuity of care and population health management.

Next, I worked as a manager of patient treatment solutions for a system of five cancer hospitals where I led a team of decentralized clinical analysts in maintaining, upgrading, and correcting the enterprise EHR as well as the more than 30 software applications that fed data into or extracted data from the EHR. I also helped implement document imaging software across the system and worked through challenges of disparate databases as well as bandwidth and infrastructure limitations. My job also required me to mediate challenging discussions with oncologists, naturopathic physicians, pathologists, and others so we could build a cancer staging tool. In this role, I gained the functional knowledge to make data flow properly.

In 2013, I joined BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee as a research and trending consultant where I examined potential patterns of fraud, waste, and abuse. My coding background was paramount, and I learned a lot about data analytics in this role. In 2017, I became the manager of coding process improvement—a newly created role for which I helped write the job description. In this role, I’ve led the build of an end-to-end data governance program which has pushed me beyond what I thought I was capable of doing. It has been an amazing experience.

LE: Tell me more about the data governance project and your role in it.

SS: The program was originally an effort to implement general equivalence mappings (GEMs) in a timely manner after the transition to ICD-10. This morphed into a program that would ensure timely updates for all ICD-10, CPT, HCPCS, and Current Dental Terminology (CDT) codes. We partnered with a vendor that had a tool that uses artificial intelligence (AI) to determine specific code changes that impact code groups that are used for claims adjudication, analytics, and more. Our coding research and reimbursement team validates the codes before we send them to the enterprise as a complete update. The new steps in our process help us provide business owners with the precise codes they need to review each year. We leverage people, processes, and systems to gain a more automated flow for code maintenance of ICD, CPT, HCPCS, and CDT.

LE: How has BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee benefitted from the changes you’ve made?

SS: The changes reallocate resources among several teams including configuration and product development groups as well as various stakeholders from multiple lines of business. For example, in our previous process, one of our teams manually reviewed code groups for the Affordable Care Act (ACA) preventive measures, and then sent the information to the team that owned business decisions involving those codes. This process often took six to eight weeks. Now, AI pinpoints new and revised codes that might impact certain policies or products. The first time we utilized our new AI-driven process, these groups handled all of the updates in 45 minutes with the exception of one that needed additional stakeholder input. It’s mind-blowingly amazing.

LE: Throughout your career, it seems like you’ve had a lot of on-the-job learning. Was it intimidating to go from one setting with a certain set of job responsibilities to a completely different setting with a different scope of responsibilities?

SS: It probably should have been intimidating, but not a lot scares me. It was exciting to me. I thought of every opportunity as a new challenge. One of my goals in life is to leave things better than I found them, so when there’s an opportunity to do this either personally or professionally, I jump at it. That helps me be less scared.

With that said, there were times throughout my career when I felt in over my head a bit. For example, when working at the regional extension center, I had to research a lot on my own to learn some of the IT language so I could keep up with conversations. However, my experience with EHRs gave me a foundation of knowledge on which I could build. Another example that comes to mind is when I started my doctoral program at Medical University of South Carolina. When my cohort group started introducing themselves, I realized I was in the company of CIOs, physicians, radiologists, pharmacists, and other highly trained individuals, and I doubted my abilities. However, when we started having dialogues in our forums, I realized how much knowledge I had to share.

LE: What’s the one commonality that you think transcends all of the HIM positions you’ve held?

SS: Respect for the data. If you’re releasing the data, you need to be mindful of patient privacy while also balancing the need for information exchange that enables care continuity. If you’re coding, you need to tell the complete and accurate patient story. If you’re working for a payer, you need to make sure the member receives the most appropriate services based on the diagnoses that are reported. HIM professionals are stewards of the data regardless of the role.

LE: Why diversify your job experiences? Why didn’t you stick with one specialty or setting?

SS: When I took the job with the regional extension center it highlighted the need for HIM professionals in so many other places. I saw the explosion of what was possible with data because of electronic exchange and the new technologies and applications that were going to be sending, receiving, or storing this data. I saw an opportunity to take this data into new places.

LE: What are some of the untapped opportunities for HIM professionals? How can HIM help support the use of big data in nontraditional settings?

SS: The payer world is actually ripe with opportunities for HIM. The Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) may publish final rules in November on patient access and information blocking. Both agencies have sent their respective rules to the Office of Management and Budget for review. One of the emerging areas is working for third-party vendors building the portal and transactional forms that enable patients to request their information from a payer. For example, HIM can help payers understand their legal obligations in terms of access and blocking, including how to define their designated record set. HIM can also serve on value-based contracting teams, helping to define outcomes-based quality metrics. When payers include HIM professionals in these conversations, they can actually increase the quality of the data they receive. Finally, HIM can help design reports for medical informatics, quality, and value-based contracting.

LE: If someone wants to move into these new roles, what knowledge do they need?

SS: They need to expand their knowledge of back-end structured data—SNOMED, LOINC, RXNORM—so they can ensure that the most updated structured data links correctly with coded data to flow through Health Level Seven or FHIR-based APIs. They also need to understand data architecture so they can enhance data mapping. It’s one thing to identify applications and business owners but another to identify all of the data that actually flows through those relationships. HIM professionals need to understand change management and how to overcome barriers to change. They also need to understand project management, process improvement, and data governance. Finally, they need to know how the changes they propose affect others and their workflow.

LE: In the nearly two decades you’ve worked in HIM, what’s something you learned about the profession that you didn’t anticipate?

SS: I didn’t understand the power of the data. That has been so instrumental in every choice I’ve made in my career. The story that the data tells impacts both personal and population health, and it also drives organizational decisions around clinical and financial opportunities. It’s thrilling!

LE: Can you provide any advice to younger HIM professionals who want to follow a similar professional trajectory?

SS: Become friendly with IT and have conversations. Be bold and take on new challenges. Be a lifelong learner regardless of whether it’s pursuing higher education, certification, or simply attending a lunch-and-learn event. Always consume knowledge.


Lisa Eramo ( is a freelance writer and editor in Cranston, RI, who specializes in healthcare regulatory topics, health information management, and medical coding.


  1. Hi Kuwana! I can see that you are committed to HIM/HIT. You have a history of working in clinical coding more than once and you are an RHIT. I suggest keeping your certification. Yes to your BS! Every day, all day long, I will say yes to formal education that is helps you on your path.
    If you enjoy data collection, it may be important for you to consider a query language course (SQL, SAS, etc.). I say this because as a person who has been trained to understand structured health data, you have an advantage. If you learn report building/writing, you are a value-add employee in our industry. With that experience, you would likely qualify for your CHDA exam.
    I most definitely did not know what I wanted to “be when I grew up”. I know HIM was my love and I wanted to understand the various roles so that i could orchestrate process flows that were efficient. I had no idea what that would look like. Obviously our industry has changed significantly over the last decade with the onset of more and more technology to support health policy changes. So, now, understanding various roles is even more important.
    Looking back on the times I have been discouraged, I usually changed employers. I do not easily or often get discouraged and recognizing that my discouragement was with my role and not a person or an organization has helped me realize making a difference is so important. When I have outlived my ability to make a difference, I found a new challenge that always required me to learn more.
    Stay the course. HIM is challenging! It is changing! And it is so important! Dig in somewhere, even if you do not love it in that moment. It will help you find your next opportunity in the profession and you will always have the knowledge of what you learned as you move.

  2. Hello Shannan. I have been a certified RHIT since 2017. I have not yet had the opportunity to work in the field. After much consideration I decided the direction I want to take is more in data and analytics. I have been trying to decide if I’m going to pursue a BS. I know every person in HIM takes a different path to get to where they want to be. I did try coding and even took a refresher course at the college I graduated and also took some online classes with AHIMA. With that I decided maybe I’m not suited for coding. I have applied to countless positions and have many interviews that seemed to have gone well but it turned out that I wasn’t chosen for the position. I decided to be more open and I applied for other positions outside of HIM/ HIT. With this position I collect data, and I code deeds and do research on property. It allows me to gain experience in data collection. I really don’t want to accumulate anymore student debt but before I got my new position I was discouraged and even thought about letting my certification go. My question to you is when you started your career in HIT did you have an idea of what path you wanted to take? What did you do when you became discouraged?

  3. I would love to know if Shannan does speaking engagements. I am always looking for great quality speakers for our Louisville, Kentucky Organization.

    1. Hi Eva! Yes! I enjoy speaking opportunities; especially if they allow collaborative discussion.

  4. This article was so inspiring to me because I am new to HIM(entry-level) for a large hospital system in Columbia SC as a second career. There are so many avenues within HIM in which I am trying to figure out certifications I could pursue soon as a HIM student with a Masters in Business Admn. and Healthcare Mgmt with some leadership and healthcare experiences. It is so ironic Ms. Swafford’s journey has a similarity to me as I did my undergraduate studies at the University of South Carolina-Columbia, worked for a healthcare entity in Brentwood, TN, completed graduate studies with the University of Phoenix(Franklin, TN) and lived in Murfreesboro TN in recent years.

    Her interview has encouraged me so much to continue to build on my HIM experience, find my strengths in HIM and keep my options open to new horizons despite organizational changes and downsizing. This interview was a great read.

    Karen Jackson

    1. Karen, My twin! How cool that we have such similar experiences! So glad you enjoyed the article.

  5. I would like to end up in a healthcare IT role, currently pursuing a bachelor’s in HIM, and planning on doing a master’s in Health informatics, is this a good combination for the field or IT role that I seek?

    1. Yang,
      Apologies for the delay. This does sound like a great path to achieve your goals. How close are you on the completion of your BS in HIM?

  6. Shannan is my niece and I am so very proud of her and her accomplishments. She is very driven in whatever she does (even deer hunting). This is an amazing interview.

    Thank you
    Elise Catlett

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